And how does it relate to the resurgent interest in communism, communization, and commoning as political horizons in the present? Discussions indebted to Autonomia have fed directly into Occupy in its various iterations over the past two years. The ongoing project of Occupy constitutes a thread that runs through the reading group, culminating in discussions devoted to movements in the US and internationally. Texts by theorists and organizers—including some with biographical ties to these histories, such as Michael Hardt, George Caffentzis and Silvia Federici—will be drawn on to prompt new questions about recent experiences and those to be faced in the future.
This session will begin with a brief introduction to the overall reading group. They include both archival documents and retrospective analyses of the expanded Autonomia period in the s and its afterlives in the early twenty-first century. How and why does Autonomia resonate today for us in the ongoing aftermath of Occupy and related movements around the world?
These questions of historical resonance will preoccupy discusisons throughout the duration of the group, but the first session will set out some basic points of reference to be fleshed out and debated in future sessions. Autonomia: Post-Political Politics , pp. Branden W. This week, we will continue our introduction to the theoretical and political trajectory of Autonomia.
Overall, this sequence of readings will enable us to establish a basic trajectory that can in turn lead into a detailed examination of Autonomia cultural and political practices in the following week. These readings are supplemented by two very short contemporary items: a review of the Autonomia volume in Artforum by Jason Smith , as well as a statement by Judith Butler concerning the politics of precarity relative to the direct action tactics of Occupy Wall Street Autonomia: Post-Political Politics , It is not only a political project, but a project for existence.
This week we will delve into the politico-theoretical breakthroughs and embodied experiences of Autonomia as it crested in , exemplified by the experimental artistic, cultural and media tactics developed in Bologna. We will also consider the relation of Autonomia to the terrorist strategy of the Red Brigades, a question retroactively necessitated by the state repression of Autonomist activists in Three primary readings are suggested Berardi, Cuningeham, Deseriis but also included on the reading-list are several very short and highly recommended archival documents from the period that can provide further texture to the theoretical discussions.
Participants in the reading group are encouraged to step up to present any of the readings in question to help anchor the discussion.
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These are texts we can return to in the future. Discussion of the cultural tactics of the Metropolitan Indians in Bologna in the context of the explosion of , with frequent reference to other avant-garde projects in Europe and the US, as well as the counter-globalization movement. These readings are all very short pages , very worthwhile archival documents from the 77 movement. Journal entry from Living Theater performing in Autonomia milieu and suffering police repression. Last week, we delved into the cultural and political texture of Autonomia as it crested in , with special emphasis on the extra-parliamentary forms of communism developed by young proletarians verticality of the institutional left—communes, occupations, squats, autoreductions, self-organized media networks, and a variety of experiments with new modes of working, communicating, and living outside of the wage relation.
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We also considered the radicality of the threat posed by Autonomia in its various guises to the Italian state, and the interplay between state repression and the adoption of terrorist tactics in some strands of the Left. This week, we will examine the intersection of autonomist and feminist politics as exemplified by the transnational wages against housework campaign, which developed in-between Italy, Britain, and the United States. The questions of self-organized living and working developed by Autonomia were both taken up and interrogated by thinkers such as Federici, James, and Dalla Costa, an intellectual trajectory that would eventually open on to theorizations of gendered social reproduction under conditions of globalization, austerity, and debt.
Last week, we examined the materialist-feminist analysis of social reproduction developed by Silvia Federici, Mariarosa Dalla Costa, Selma James, and the broader Wages for Housework movement in and around the politico-ideological milieu of Autonomia as it expanded from Italy to Britain to the United States.
The struggle for wages was not posited as an end in of itself, but rather as a tactic to bring into visibility housework qua work, and thus a site of public political struggle. The work of housework involves the reproduction of two key commodities: the laborer and laborers-to-be children.
This week, we will focus on the rise to prominence in the s of three Autonomist concepts that have proven to be especially influential for contemporary struggles against Wall Street that extend the politics of reproduction analyzed by Federici and others over the past two decades: the Commons, Immaterial Labor, and the Multitude. As an optional supplement, folks are encouraged to read a interview from Midnight Notes about the spatial conflicts in the Lower east Side in the late s. This week we will discuss recent extensions of autonomist thought into the realm of precarious cultural labor of the sort performed by artists, designers, administrators, students, adjuncts and more.
Of all sessions in the reading group, this one will touch most closely on the working conditions that many of the participants in the reading group share, and it details a crucial strand in the pre-history of Occupy. The readings are short and pithy, and we suggest taking time to work through them in advance of what promises to be a very dynamic conversation.
The text concludes with a rousing appeal to Jubilee, a theological principle that evokes the liberation of slaves, the cancellation of debts, and the redistribution of land. Immaterial labor names a paradigm of work that deconstructs the opposition between manual and mental work, encompassing all varieties of labor that involve working with communication, culture, social relationships, information technologies, and the production of subjectivity; extending beyond the factory or office as a finite time and space of work, this paradigm involves the expansion of labor into social life more generally.
The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus 's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca. Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energising effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage.
As with many other literary genres, Roman dramatists was heavily influenced or tended to adapt from the Greek. For example, Seneca's Phaedra was based on that of Euripides , and many of the comedies of Plautus were direct translations of works by Menander. During the 16th century and on into the 18th century, Commedia dell'arte was a form of improvisational theatre , and it is still performed today. Travelling troupes of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling , acrobatics and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called canovaccio.
Plays did not originate from written drama but from scenarios called lazzi , which were loose frameworks that provided the situations, complications, and outcome of the action, around which the actors would improvise. The characters of the commedia usually represent fixed social types and stock characters , each of which has a distinct costume , such as foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado.
The main categories of these characters include servants, old men, lovers, and captains. Carlo Goldoni , who wrote a few scenarios starting in , supersed the comedy of masks and the comedy of intrigue by representations of actual life and manners through the characters and their behaviours.
He rightly maintained that Italian life and manners were susceptible of artistic treatment such as had not been given them before.wirundesksing.tk
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The Teatro di San Carlo in Naples is the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world, opening in , decades before both the Milan's La Scala and Venice's La Fenice theatres. From folk music to classical , music has always played an important role in Italian culture. Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy,   and many of the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphony , concerto, and sonata , can trace their roots back to innovations of 16th- and 17th-century Italian music.
Modern Italian composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development of experimental and electronic music.
While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan and San Carlo of Naples the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world ,  and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and tenor Luciano Pavarotti , Italians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene.
Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of opera. La Scala operahouse in Milan is also renowned as one of the best in the world. Introduced in the early s, jazz took a particularly strong foothold in Italy, and remained popular despite the xenophobic cultural policies of the Fascist regime.
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Today, the most notable centres of jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. In the early s, the first star to emerge from the Italian hip hop scene was singer Jovanotti. Italy was also an important country in the development of disco and electronic music , with Italo disco , known for its futuristic sound and prominent use of synthesisers and drum machines , being one of the earliest electronic dance genres, as well as European forms of disco aside from Euro disco which later went on to influence several genres such as Eurodance and Nu-disco.
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By the latter half of the s, a subgenre of Eurodance known as Italo dance emerged. Taking influences from Italo disco and Italo house, Italo dance generally included synthesizer riffs, a melodic sound, and the usage of vocoders. Producers such as Giorgio Moroder , who won three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes for his music, were highly influential in the development of electronic dance music.
Other companies soon followed in Milan and in Naples. In a short time these first companies reached a fair producing quality, and films were soon sold outside Italy. After the war, Italian film was widely recognised and exported until an artistic decline around the s. The mids to the early s was the heyday of neorealist films , reflecting the poor condition of post-war Italy.
As the country grew wealthier in the s, a form of neorealism known as pink neorealism succeeded, and other film genres , such as sword-and-sandal followed as spaghetti westerns , were popular in the s and s. Actresses such as Sophia Loren , Giulietta Masina and Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period. Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos , produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the s, also influenced the horror genre worldwide. In the s, the number of international productions being made there led to Rome's being dubbed " Hollywood on the Tiber ".
More than 3, productions have been made on its lot, of which 90 received an Academy Award nomination and 47 of these won it, from some cinema classics to recent rewarded features such as Roman Holiday , Ben-Hur , Cleopatra , Romeo and Juliet , The English Patient , The Passion of the Christ , and Gangs of New York. The most popular sport in Italy is, by far, football.
Italy's top-flight club football league is named Serie A and is followed by millions of fans around the world. Other popular team sports in Italy include volleyball , basketball and rugby. Italy's male and female national volleyball teams are often featured among the world's best. The Italian national basketball team 's best results were gold at Eurobasket and EuroBasket , as well as silver at the Olympics in Lega Basket Serie A is widely considered one of the most competitive in Europe.
Rugby union enjoys a good level of popularity, especially in the north of the country. Italy ranks as a tier-one nation by World Rugby. The men's volleyball team won three consecutive World Championships in , , and and earned the Olympic silver medal in , , and Italy has a long and successful tradition in individual sports as well.
Bicycle racing is a very familiar sport in the country. Alpine skiing is also a very widespread sport in Italy, and the country is a popular international skiing destination, known for its ski resorts. Tennis has a significant following in Italy, ranking as the fourth most practised sport in the country. Italian professional tennis players won the Davis Cup in and the Fed Cup in , , and Motorsports are also extremely popular in Italy.
Italian Scuderia Ferrari is the oldest surviving team in Grand Prix racing, having competed since , and statistically the most successful Formula One team in history with a record of wins. Historically, Italy has been successful in the Olympic Games , taking part from the first Olympiad and in 47 Games out of Italian sportsmen have won medals at the Summer Olympic Games , and another at the Winter Olympic Games , for a combined total of medals with golds, which makes them the fifth most successful nation in Olympic history for total medals.
The country hosted two Winter Olympics and will host a third in , , and , and one Summer games in Italian fashion has a long tradition , and is regarded as one most important in the world. Milan, Florence and Rome are Italy's main fashion capitals. Also, the fashion magazine Vogue Italia , is considered one of the most prestigious fashion magazines in the world.
Italy is also prominent in the field of design, notably interior design, architectural design , industrial design and urban design. The country has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass , and Italian phrases such as "Bel Disegno" and "Linea Italiana" have entered the vocabulary of furniture design. The city of Milan hosts Fiera Milano , Europe's largest design fair.
The Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC. Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan , ancient Greek , ancient Roman , Byzantine , and Jewish. The Mediterranean diet forms the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in pasta , fish, fruits and vegetables and characterised by its extreme simplicity and variety, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients.
A key factor in the success of Italian cuisine is its heavy reliance on traditional products; Italy has the most traditional specialities protected under EU law. Public holidays celebrated in Italy include religious, national and regional observances. The Saint Lucy's Day , which take place on 13 December, is very popular among children in some Italian regions, where she plays a role similar to Santa Claus.
There are many festivals and festivities in Italy. The prestigious Venice International Film Festival , awarding the " Golden Lion " and held annually since , is the oldest film festival in the world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country.
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