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Advanced search. De la literatura latinoamericana a la literatura latinoamericana mundial. Abstract Keywords Free access Buy the book Export citation. Abstract What is World Literature? Abstract The presence of religion in Greek literature has been thoroughly analysed in the most relevant historical and philological studies. Abstract Greece and Rome have been traditionally labelled as the main pillar and the cradle of Western Civilization.
Keywords Teaching innovation Classical legacy contemporary literature. Voces de mujeres en la Edad Media. Abstract The contributions gathered in this volume take a fresh look at the medieval history of women.
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Literaturas compartidas Authors : Basile, Teresa coord. Keywords Argentina literature literatura. De enanos y gigantes.
Literatura y violencia en la narrativa latinoamericana reciente Author : Basile, Teresa coord. Abstract This volume presents a number of studies that project their interest on the ancient world and its permanence through the centuries. Los manuscritos son evaluados, antes de ser aceptados, por revisores externos peer-review. We analyse the gender-based violence against women considering the Aymara ethnic ascendance as a casual factor.. The individuals show that non-physical violence is the predominant behaviour in couples and higher rate of violence is present in women with Aymara ancestry than others..
We conclude that social constructions of gender may be a risk factor in violence against women because of its influence in social inequalities and abuses of power against women.. Gender violence is defined as all abusive actions against women that can bring about physical, sexual, psychological or economic harm, including threats of such actions and coercion or deprivation of liberty.
The emphasis in the approach to gender violence has been put on the consequences derived from the abuse actions, with the goal of repairing the traumatic experiences. From a psychosocial viewpoint, gender violence would be inserted in a form of social organisation and in a system of beliefs and cultural values that determine practices, behaviours and styles of relationships between the genders. Consequently, the way that people build social reality is studied, emphasising the setting out of roles and expectations for men and women. These form a catalogue of socially constructed roles, which define the ways of being, feeling and acting.
From this viewpoint, it is interesting to examine the particularities of the Aymara ethnic group. The Aymara are an indigenous people settled in the highland areas in the extreme north of Chile, principally dedicated to activities related to agriculture and livestock. This ethnic group is characterised by a special worldview that limits the relationship between man and woman as a system of complementarity, with the family being the key organisational unit of their culture. With respect to the family unit, in the Aymara worldview men and women should consolidate as a duality by means of the matrimonial bond called Chacha-Warmi , along with establishing their family unit represented by the spouses and their descendents , promoting social, cultural and economic reproduction.
In this sense, the man and the woman acquire a social position through the prestige that consolidation as a numerous, stable family implies.
Both spouses are considered responsible for the family unit in the family dynamics, assuming the fulfilment of various domestic, commercial and social activities. However, there is a distribution of work based on gender, in which women takes on principally childcare and household chores, lacking participation in the economic and social spheres. In contrast, men dedicate themselves to productive, economic and social activities due to their condition as head of the household , becoming active agents in the social organisation of their people. The characteristics themselves of the Aymara ethnic group and the differences associated with gender roles are part of this people's worldview.
They make it necessary to investigate the transmission of cultural patterns and behavioural guidelines that favour the emergence of forms of violence against women, based on the social constructs characteristic of their culture. Considering that culture and social environment can establish significant differences in the presence of gender violence, our objective was to diagnose the presence of gender violence in women of Aymara ascendancy in the regions of Arica and Parinacota, Chile..
The socio-demographic characteristics of both groups are presented in Table Socio-demographic characteristics of Aymara and non-Aymara women.. The usefulness of this instrument lies in evaluating the presence of violence against women within the intimate partner relationship. It is composed of 30 items, being divided into 2 subscales: physical violence subscale 8 items that evaluate the presence of physical violence and the non-physical violence subscale 22 items that evaluate the presence of non-physical violence. This instrument possesses appropriate psychometric properties, with Cronbach's alpha values of 0.
The usefulness of this instrument stems from the identification of women abused by their intimate partners. It consists of 2 items that ask about the degree of tension and of difficulties existing in the intimate partner relationship. This instrument possesses appropriate psychometric properties, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0. The criteria for inclusion in the study specified that the participants were adult women of ethnic ascendancy and without ethnic ascendancy, residents of the city of Arica.
The following were criteria for exclusion: not being an adult and the presence of any type of sensorial or cognitive disorder.. Before the instruments were administered, the women evaluated received a document indicating the study goals, the fact that participation was voluntary, the confidentiality of their data and the criteria for inclusion. If the woman wished to participate, an informed consent was requested, fulfilling the ethical standards for social science research.
After that, we recorded the socio-demographic data and administered the questionnaires in the following order: ISA scale and then WAST questionnaire. The mean time of assessment was approximately 30 min. Collaborators administered both instruments in the workplace of the women evaluated.. The mean result for the women who did not have indigenous ascendancy was 0. The total score for the scale indicated that With respect to the forms of violence measured with the ISA, the results corresponding to the Aymara women showed a mean of 5.
In contrast, the ISA results for the women lacking indigenous ascendancy showed an average of 2. There were significant differences in the forms of violence measured by the ISA in function of the ethnical ascendancy of the participants. To analyse the relationship between the socio-demographic variables and the dimensions of physical and non-physical violence on the ISA scale, we applied a regression analysis with the successive steps method. Physical violence was related to the variables children, ethnic group, level of education and current partner relationship status. Non-physical violence showed a relationship to the variables children, ethnic group and current partner relationship status.go site
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In turn, Presence of abuse using the WAST instrument was related to the variables current partner relationship status, level of education and marital status Tables 2— Regression coefficients for the presence of physical violence as measured on the ISA scale.. Dependent variable: presence of physical violence ISA scale.. Predictor variables: constant , children, ethnic group.. Predictor variables: constant , children, ethnic group, level of education..
Predictor variables: constant , children, ethnic group, level of education, current partner.. Regression coefficients for the presence of non-physical violence as measured on the ISA scale.. Dependent variable: presence of non-physical violence ISA scale.. Predictor variables: constant , children, ethnic group, current partner..
Regression coefficients for the presence of abuse as measured on the WAST scale.. Dependent variable: presence of violence WAST scale.. Predictor variables: constant , current partner.. Predictor variables: constant , current partner, education.. Predictor variables: constant , current partner, education, marital status.. The subjects constituting the sample analysed in this study presented a predominance of non-physical violence, principally in reference to psychological abuse, measured as control and threats from the partner.
Likewise, the participants presented high rates of physical violence, in reference to the presence of blows and sexual aggressions, both also associated with deterioration in health and well-being. Although types of violence against women were found, these tended to coexist in the intimate partner relationship, linked to the repetition of a behavioural pattern called cycle of violence. This behaviour is characterised by the fact that the victim continues to live with the abuser, in an alternating succession of violent episodes followed by reconciliation, which progress in a spiral of ever greater violence.
With respect to the existence of significant differences in the presence of violence between Aymara and non-Aymara women, higher rates of both physical and non-physical abuse were found in the former. It would be good to consider whether these differences are related to the rigidity of the gender-role sexual differentiation present in the Aymara worldview that attributes authority to the man in the social and family spheres, placing the women in conditions of vulnerability.
As to the influence of psychosocial factors in the presence of violence against women, the results make it clear that the abuse episodes are strongly related to the level of education, child care, the status of the current intimate partner relationship and ethnic ascendancy. All of these favour the woman's independence and personal autonomy, as they operated as media that facilitate the rupture of the circles of violence.
It can be seen that the ethnic group variable shows significant associations with both physical and non-physical violence. But slavery of the same kind was continued in practice until the 20th century. They are slaves by abuse and custom.
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And the Indian returns, because that is his condition. Races oppressed and reviled for three hundred years need eight hundred more to return to themselves. This example alone would be enough to demonstrate that the ideologies of the dominant classes insinuate themselves into the morality of the oppressed just as the fact that an illiterate might handle complex grammatical rules demonstrates the existence of an unconscious knowledge.
According to the Bolivian Alcides Arguedas, the soldiers would take the Indians by the hair and drag them off under threat of the saber to clean their barracks or steal their sheep in order to maintain army troops as they passed through. The Indian is never seen laughing except when he is inebriated. His soul is a repository of rancor accumulated from long ago, since the moment when, the flower of the race imprisoned, against its will, in the depth of the mines, he rapidly withered, without provoking mercy in anyone.
Today, ignorant, degraded, miserable, he is the object of general exploitation and general antipathy. Needless to say, instead of Bolivia we could write the name of any other Latin American country, and we would not do violence to the truth of the statement. The master is visualized as a pure and generous being when he concedes an unusual benefit to the slave, as if he possessed a divine power to administer the rights of another.
Perhaps we might accept a certain kindness of the oppressor if we were to consider a particular context. The point is that we do not demand of the old feudal subjects that they think like us; we demand from ourselves that we not think like the old feudal subjects, as if there existed no historical experience in between.
Related Reflexiones críticas sobre la violencia en el Siglo XXI (Spanish Edition)
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